Sunday, February 21, 2016

Iridium-192

Iridium-192

Iridium-192 (symbol 192Ir) is a radioactive isotope of iridium, with a half-life of 73.83 days.[1] It decays by emitting beta (β) particles and gamma (γ) radiation. About 96% of 192Ir decays occur via emission of β and γ radiation, leading to 192Pt. Some of the β particles are captured by other 192Ir nuclei, which are then converted to 192Os. Electron capture is responsible for the remaining 4% of 192Ir decays.

Iridium-192 is also a strong gamma ray emitter. There are seven principal energy packets produced during its disintegration process ranging from just over 0.2 to about 0.6 MeV. Iridium-192 is commonly used as a gamma ray source in industrial radiography to locate flaws in metal components. It is also used in radiotherapy as a radiation source, in particular in brachytherapy.

Iridium-192 has accounted for the majority of cases tracked by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in which radioactive materials have gone missing in quantities large enough to make a dirty bomb. [more info ...]

Dirty Bomb

Dirty Bomb

A dirty bomb or radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a speculative radiological weapon that combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. The purpose of the weapon is to contaminate the area around the dispersal agent/conventional explosion with radioactive material, serving primarily as an area denial device against civilians. It is however not to be confused with a nuclear explosion, such as a fission bomb, which by releasing nuclear energy produces blast effects far in excess of what is achievable by the use of conventional explosives.

Though a RDD would be designed to disperse radioactive material over a large area, a bomb that uses conventional explosives and produces a blast wave would be far more lethal to people than the hazard posed by radioactive material that may be mixed with the explosive. At levels created from probable sources, not enough radiation would be present to cause severe illness or death. A test explosion and subsequent calculations done by the United States Department of Energy found that assuming nothing is done to clean up the affected area and everyone stays in the affected area for one year, the radiation exposure would be "fairly high", but not fatal. Recent analysis of the nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl disaster confirms this, showing that the effect on many people in the surrounding area, although not those in close proximity, was almost negligible.

Since a dirty bomb is unlikely to cause many deaths by radiation exposure, many do not consider this to be a weapon of mass destruction. Its purpose would presumably be to create psychological, not physical, harm through ignorance, mass panic, and terror. For this reason dirty bombs are sometimes called "weapons of mass disruption". Additionally, containment and decontamination of thousands of victims, as well as decontamination of the affected area might require considerable time and expense, rendering areas partly unusable and causing economic damage. [more info ...]



Predicting Malicious Behavior: Tools and Techniques for Ensuring Global Security (Book by: Gary M. Jackson, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Pub. Date: June 19, 2012):
"A radiological terrorist weapon is basically synonymous with the term dirty bomb. First, a radiological weapon is NOT a nuclear bomb. Instead, it is the spread of radioactive material in the environment by means of conventional explosion. The victim, if fortunate enough to escape the blast effects, would likely exhibit radiation sickness and perhaps long-term cancer. Given explosion and dispersal in a densely populated area, the long-term effects for many could result from one dirty bomb."



Spiritist Codification

Spiritist Codification

Spiritist Codification (or The Spiritist Pentateuch) is the customary name given by spiritists to the set of books codified by Allan Kardec. The books are a compilation of questions made by Allan Kardec and answers allegedly dictated by Spirits, between the years 1857 and 1868. The series contains the fundamental details of the Spiritism movement. The collection of the first five books, written and published by French teacher, educator and Spiritism codificator Allan Kardec, are called "The Five Fundamental Works of Spiritism". These books contain several explanations of the Spiritism Doctrine, as well as religious teachings and essays on the spirit world, mediumship, miracles, paranormal and supernatural phenomena. Two other books were published to complement the teachings of Allan Kardec: Qu'est-Ce Le Spiritisme? ("What is Spiritism?") in 1859 and Oeuvres Posthumes ("Posthumous Works") in 1890. [more info]


Spiritism is a progressive body of knowledge which deals with the nature, origin and destiny of Spirits, as well as their relationship to the corporeal world. As such, it sheds light into what we are, where we come from, where we go after we die, and why we often face different challenges in our lives. In short, it addresses the reason for our existence – and how we can better ourselves to attain true happiness. [more info]

Sunday, February 14, 2016

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America

5th Avenue – New York City, NY


Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare going through the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States. It stretches from West 143rd Street in Harlem to Washington Square North at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village. It is considered among the most expensive and best shopping streets in the world.

As a large city, New York has many stunning examples of beautiful buildings.

5th Avenue – New York City, NY
5th Avenue – New York City, NY


One of the flashiest that I was drawn to was barely a building at all. This is the 24 hour Apple Store on Fifth Avenue, the only location worldwide that never closes. It’s just a glass cube! Inside, I bought an iPad.

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America
5th Avenue – New York City, NY


The New York Stock Exchange covers up its fascade with a huge banner for Mother’s Day.

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America
5th Avenue – New York City, NY


I’m on Wall Street! Even though it was probably late in the day, the area was surprisingly not very busy.

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America
5th Avenue – New York City, NY


More high rises of different architecture styles are shown here. One building is seemingly growing out of the tree on the left!

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America
5th Avenue – New York City, NY


I don’t remember what this building is, but many similar ones exist around the city.

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America
5th Avenue – New York City, NY


Many high rises are grouped here as well.

The Most Expensive Commercial Streets in North America
5th Avenue – New York City, NY


This is a huge, tall photo to highlight one building. After my trip, I saw the Sex in the City 2 movie. In one scene, this building can be seen in the background!

De duurste winkelstraten in Noord-Amerika
Fifth Avenue is een belangrijke doorgaande weg gaan door de stad van Manhattan in New York City, Verenigde Staten. Het strekt zich uit West 143 Street in het Harlem Washington Square North in Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village. Het wordt beschouwd als een van de duurste en beste winkelstraten in de wereld. Als een grote stad, New York heeft vele prachtige voorbeelden van mooie gebouwen. Een van de flitsende dat ik werd aangetrokken was nauwelijks een gebouw helemaal. Dit is het 24 uur per dag Apple Store op Fifth Avenue, de enige plaats in de wereld die nooit sluit. Het is gewoon een glazen kubus! Inside, kocht ik een iPad. De New York Stock Exchange dekt de gevel met een grote banner voor Moederdag. Ik ben op Wall Street! Hoewel het waarschijnlijk te laat op de dag was, het gebied was verrassend genoeg niet erg druk. Meer hoogbouw van verschillende architectuurstijlen worden hier getoond. Een gebouw is schijnbaar groeit uit de boom aan de linkerkant! Ik weet niet meer wat dit gebouw is, maar veel soortgelijke projecten bestaan ​​rond de stad. Veel hoogbouw hier gegroepeerd ook. Dit is een enorme, grote foto voor één gebouw te markeren. Na mijn reis, zag ik de Sex in the City 2 film. In een scène, kan dit gebouw worden gezien in de achtergrond!

Monday, February 8, 2016

Number of Neurons in the Human Brain

Number of Neurons in the Human Brain

The average human brain has about 100 billion neurons (or nerve cells) and many more neuroglia (or glial cells) which serve to support and protect the neurons (although see the end of this page for more information on glial cells). Each neuron may be connected to up to 10,000 other neurons, passing signals to each other via as many as 1,000 trillion synaptic connections, equivalent by some estimates to a computer with a 1 trillion bit per second processor. Estimates of the human brain’s memory capacity vary wildly from 1 to 1,000 terabytes (for comparison, the 19 million volumes in the US Library of Congress represents about 10 terabytes of data). [more info]

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether. Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects. The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior. [more info: List of animals by number of neurons]

Friday, February 5, 2016

Polyglot

Polyglot

A polyglot is a person able to:
  speak or write several languages
OR
  develop computer code in multiple programming languages.

ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)

ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)

ITIL, formerly an acronym for Information Technology Infrastructure Library, is a set of practices for IT Service Management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business. In its current form (known as ITIL 2011 edition), ITIL is published as a series of five core volumes, each of which covers a different ITSM lifecycle stage. Although ITIL underpins ISO/IEC 20000 (previously BS15000), the International Service Management Standard for IT service management, there are some differences between the ISO 20000 standard and the ITIL framework.

ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)
ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)






Thursday, February 4, 2016

Transhumanism

Transhumanism 

Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international and intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and creating widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities.

Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international and intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and creating widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities.
Transhumanism 

Julian Huxley, the biologist who popularised the term transhumanism in an influential 1957 essay.
Julian Huxley, the biologist who popularized the term transhumanism in an influential 1957 essay.



Quadcopter

Quadcopter


A quadcopter, also called a quadrotor helicopter or quadrotor, is a multirotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors. Quadcopters are classified as rotorcraft, as opposed to fixed-wing aircraft, because their lift is generated by a set of rotors (vertically oriented propellers).

This is a Quadcopter. [A quadcopter, also called a quadrotor helicopter or quadrotor, is a multirotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors.]
This is a Quadcopter.