Saturday, December 31, 2011


The largest city of the European Union by population:


Thursday, September 15, 2011

Neurosynaptic Computing Chips

A new generation of experimental computer chips designed to emulate the brain’s abilities for perception, action and cognition by IBM unveiled in August 2011:

Neurosynaptic Computing Chips [for more information check IBM's website at:]


The study of humor and laughter and its effects on the body from a psychological and physiological perspective:


Coordinated Universal Time

The primary time standard by which the world (computer servers, web services, etc.) regulates clocks and time:

Coordinated Universal Time  (it is abbreviated as UTC)


A method of breeding crops to increase their nutritional value through conventional selective breeding, or through genetic engineering:


Biofortification differs from fortification as it makes plant foods more nutritious as the plants are growing, rather than having nutrients added to the foods when they are being processed.

Edgar Allan Poe

American author, poet, editor and literary critic, best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre; he was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre:

Edgar Allan Poe


The quality of having a grim or ghastly atmosphere in works of art which emphasizes the details and symbols of death:


This quality is often found in Latin writers, though there are traces of it in Apuleius and the author of the Satyricon. The outstanding instances in English literature are John Webster, Robert Louis Stevenson, Mervyn Peake, Charles Dickens, and Cyril Tourneur. In American literature notable authors include Edgar Allan Poe and H. P. Lovecraft. The word has gained its significance from its use in French as la danse macabre for the allegorical representation of the ever-present and universal power of death, known in English as the Dance of Death and in German as Totentanz. The typical form which the allegory takes is that of a series of images in which Death appears, either as a dancing skeleton or as a shrunken shrouded corpse, to people representing every age and condition of life, and leads them all in a dance to the grave. Of the numerous examples painted or sculptured on the walls of cloisters or church yards through medieval Europe, few remain except in woodcuts and engravings [read more here].

Saturday, September 3, 2011

Motorola Xoom

An Android-based tablet computer by Motorola; it is named the Best of the CES 2011 by

Motorola Xoom
Motorola Xoom
Motorola Xoom

MOTOROLA XOOM Android Tablet (10.1-Inch, 32GB, Wi-Fi)
MOTOROLA XOOM Android Tablet (10.1-Inch, 32GB, Wi-Fi)


An operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google:


Android's Official Website


Open Handset Alliance

A business alliance of 80+ firms established in 2007, led by Google, to develop open standards for mobile devices:

Open Handset Alliance

Open Handset Alliance's Website


A Japanese girl or woman who is trained to provide entertaining; e.g. performing various Japanese arts such as classical music and dance, especially for a man or a group of men:

Geisha (Geisha, Geiko or Geigi)

A Geisha


A flying tool with a curved shape, especially designed to return near the thrower, used as a weapon or for sport:



Monday, August 29, 2011

Arabic, English, French, Mandarin, Russian, Spanish

The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written. They are:

  • Arabic
  • English
  • French
  • Mandarin
  • Russian
  • Spanish

Note: To remember them use FRAMES as a peg:

French, Russian, Arabic, Mandarin, English, Spanish

Saturday, August 27, 2011


The last species, a species of African apes, that humans, bonobos and chimpanzees share as a common ancestor:

CHLCA (Chimpanzee-Human Last Common Ancestor)

Ancient Ape Discovered: Last Ape-Human Ancestor?
National Geographic News
November 18, 2004
In Spain scientists have discovered 13-million-year-old fossils of new species of ape. The species may have been the last common ancestor of humans and all great apes living today.

The great apes—which later gave rise to humans and which now include orangutans, chimpanzees, and gorillas—are thought to have diverged from the lesser apes about 11 to 16 million years ago. Today's lesser apes include the gibbons.

The new species was christened Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, after the village, Els Hostalets de Pierola, and region, Catalonia, where it was found. Like great apes and humans, Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, had a stiff lower spine and other special adaptations for climbing trees [read more here].

BBC News: 'Original' great ape discovered
By Paul Rincon
BBC News science reporter
Thursday, 18 November, 2004

Scientists have unearthed remains of a primate that could have been ancestral not only to humans but to all great apes, including chimps and gorillas.

The partial skeleton of this 13-million-year-old "missing link" was found by palaeontologists working at a dig site near Barcelona in Spain.

Details of the sensational discovery appear in Science magazine.

The new specimen was probably male, a fruit-eater and was slightly smaller than a chimpanzee, researchers say.

Palaeontologists were just getting started at the dig when a bulldozer churned up a tooth [read more here].


A classification of primates, which includes monkeys, apes, and humans:




The study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms:


For more information visit the following websites:

The Paleontological Society

The Paleontology Portal


The study of laughter and its effects on the body, from a psychological and physiological perspective:


Galapagos Tortoise

The largest living species of tortoise, reaching weights of over 400 kg and lengths of over 1.8 meters, with life spans in the wild of over 100 years - it is one of the longest-lived vertebrates:

Galapagos Tortoise

Galapagos Tortoise
Galapagos Tortoises

Pro bono

A phrase derived from Latin meaning "for the public good" which is generally used to describe professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment as a public service:

Pro bono

Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll

A Colombian singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, dancer, and philanthropist who emerged in the music scene of Colombia and Latin America in the early 1990s; the highest-selling Colombian artist of all time, and the second most successful female Latin singer after Gloria Estefan, having sold over 60 million albums worldwide according to Sony Music:

Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (known professionally as Shakira)

Shakira (Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll)
Shakira (Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll)

Saturday, August 20, 2011

French Polynesia

A sprawling possession of France in the Pacific Ocean, made up of 118 volcanic and coral islands and atolls:

French Polynesia

French Polynesia

For France this huge stretch of the Pacific - as big as Western Europe - remains strategically valuable. Atomic testing on the atolls enabled France to keep the nuclear clout it needed to remain one of the world's leading powers.

The issue of independence dominates the political agenda.


There are five island groups - the Society islands, the Tuamotu archipelago, the Gambier islands, the Marquesas islands and the Tubuai islands. Tahiti is the most densely-populated island.

European contact was gradual; the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and British were credited with the discovery of one or more of the islands. In the 18th century European traders and missionaries came, bringing diseases which wiped out much of the indigenous population.

The missionaries tried to put a stop to local religious practices, nudity and other aspects of indigenous life. Some forms of Polynesian culture were lost for many years.

Tahiti, in the Society islands, became a French colony in 1880. France later annexed other islands to form the French Colony of Oceania. In 1946 the islands became an overseas territory and in 2004 gained "overseas country" status.

Pro-independence movements flourished in the 1970s and over time the islands took more control of internal affairs, culminating in a statute granting increased autonomy in 1996.

There has been friction with Paris over nuclear testing. France conducted 41 atmospheric tests on the Mururoa atoll and neighbouring Fangataufa from 1966. In 1975, under international pressure, it switched to underground tests.

Ending a three year moratorium, French President Jacques Chirac said testing would resume in 1995. The move provoked international anger and protests in Papeete turned violent.

Six of the eight planned tests were carried out, the last one in January 1996. At the end of the programme Paris agreed to a 10-year compensation package.

In 1995 the UN's nuclear watchdog concluded that radiation levels around the atolls posed no threat. In 1999 Paris admitted that fractures had been discovered in the coral cone at the sites. The atolls continue to be monitored.

In March 2009, the French government enacted legislation to allow compensation for former workers at France's nuclear weapons test sites.

French Polynesia enjoys a high standard of living, but wealth is unevenly distributed and unemployment is high.

Tourism is an important money-earner; travellers favour Tahiti and Bora Bora. Boasting a year-round warm climate, volcanic peaks and tranquil lagoons, it is easy to see why the islands are popular. French Polynesia is, though, prone to typhoons.


Territory: French Polynesia
Status: French overseas territory
Population: 251,000 (via UN, 2006)
Capital: Papeete, on Tahiti
Area: 4,167 sq km (1,609 sq miles)
Major language: Tahitian and French
Major religion: Christian
Life expectancy: 71 years (men), 76 years (women)
Monetary unit: Pacific franc
Main exports: Cultured black pearls, fish and coconut products
GNI per capita: $16,540 (World Bank, 1999)
Internet domain: .pf
International dialling code: + 689


Head of state: (French) President Nicolas Sarkozy, represented by a high commissioner
President: Oscar Temaru
French Polynesia has a 57-member assembly which is elected every five years. The president is elected from the assembly. France retains responsibility for foreign affairs, defence, justice and security. The territory is represented in the French parliament by two deputies and a senator. It is represented at the European Parliament.

[source: BBC News: Regions and territories: French Polynesia]


Coral islands that encircle a lagoon partially or completely:


An atoll is a coral island or series of coral islands forming a ring that partially or completely encloses a shallow lagoon. Atolls are surrounded by deep ocean water and range in diameter from about 1 km to over 100 km. They are common in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Atolls are formed along the fringes of underwater volcanoes.

Satellite picture of the Atafu atoll in Tokelau in the Pacific Ocean.
[image source]


A body of shallow sea water or brackish water separated from the sea by some form of barrier:


The enclosed body of shallow salt or brackish water which is separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed barrier beach, sandbank of marine origin, coral reef, barrier reef or barrier islands is called a lagoon.

Blue lagoon, Ölüdeniz, Turkey:

Brackish Water

The water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater:

Brackish Water


In biology, the study of evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms, such as species and populations, which is discovered through molecular sequencing data and morphological data matrices:


Sunday, August 14, 2011


A term commonly used in science-fiction to identify humans as opposed to extraterrestrials:


Extraterrestrial Life

A term used to identify life that does not originate from Earth (as opposed to life that originates from Earth):

Extraterrestrial Life

Theory of Mind

Understanding other people is one of the most fundamental human problems. We know much less, however, about our ability to understand other minds than about our ability to understand the physical world. The branch of cognitive science that concerns our understanding of the minds of ourselves and others has come to be called:

Theory of Mind


Labeling inanimate objects as living, attributing characteristics of animate objects to inanimate objects, and making predictions or explanations about inanimate objects based on knowledge about animate objects:


Animism means labeling inanimate objects as living, attributing characteristics of animate objects (typically humans) to inanimate objects, and making predictions or explanations about inanimate objects based on knowledge about animate objects (again usually represented by human beings). Anthropomorphism or personification means the extension of human attributes and behaviors to any nonhumans. Thus animistic reasoning can be regarded as personification of an inanimate object. In both cases, assigning mental states (desires, beliefs, and consciousness) to inanimate objects, including extraterrestrial entities (e.g., the sun) and geographical parts (e.g., a mountain), provides the most impressive example (“The sun is hot because it wants to keep people warm”).
sourceThe MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)


The belief of multiple deities (gods):


Polytheism was the typical form of religion during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, up to the Axial Age and the gradual development of monotheism or pantheism, and atheism [read more here].

Saturday, August 13, 2011

Pseudocylindrical Projection

A map projection which represents a point on the Earth along the straight line representing its parallel, at a distance which is a function of its difference in longitude from the central meridian:

Pseudocylindrical Projection

Pseudocylindrical Projection
Pseudocylindrical Projection
Pseudocylindrical projections resemble cylindrical projections, with straight and parallel latitude lines and equally spaced meridians, but the other meridians are curves.

Map Projection

Any method of representing the surface of a sphere or any other three-dimensional body on a plane is called:

Map Projection

Map Projection
Map Projection

Sunday, August 7, 2011


The concept of ability to feel, perceive or be conscious; eighteenth century philosophers used this concept to distinguish the ability to think from the ability to feel:



One of the three major macromolecules (along with DNA and proteins) that are essential for all known forms of life:


Like DNA, RNA is made up of a long chain of components called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nucleobase (sometimes called a nitrogenous base), a ribose sugar, and a phosphate group. The sequence of nucleotides allows RNA to encode genetic information. All cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to carry the genetic information that directs the synthesis of proteins [read more here].


A geometric shape composed of four squares, connected orthogonally:

Tetromino (also called Tetramino or Tetrimino)

Tetromino (also Tetramino or Tetrimino)

Saturday, August 6, 2011


A group of words that have a common trait:


Example: The following group of words form a commonym as they have a common trait that is producing milk:

  • Cow
  • Coconut
  • Sheep


Try Effective Brain Workouts & Exercises on Your Kindle!

Do you have an Amazon Kindle? Then in a very short free time that you have; e.g., in a break time at work or school, or in a time of leisure, just diligently spend a couple of minutes on Sharpen Your Brain! While you will have fun by doing its from very easy to very difficult brain workouts for improving cognitive skills, every next month you will find yourself smarter than last month. Do not hesitate to spend a couple of minutes of every day of your life for maintaining and improving your brain! Keep your brain sharp and healthy!

Tuesday, August 2, 2011


The science of extracting information from chemical systems by data-driven means; it is an interfacial discipline which uses methods frequently employed in core data-analytic disciplines such as multivariate statistics, applied mathematics, and computer science, in order to address problems in chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, biology and chemical engineering:




A type of laboratory mouse genetically engineered; developed at Harvard University, which carries several mouse oncogenes and promoter regions, making it highly susceptible to tumour formation, ergo a useful model for studying cancer:

Oncomouse or Harvard Mouse

Oncomouse or Harvard Mouse
Oncomouse/Harvard Mouse
[image_source: The Tech Museum]


A gene that causes the transformation of normal cells into cancerous tumor cells:


Most normal cells undergo a programmed form of death. Activated oncogenes can cause those cells that ought to die to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs target the proteins encoded by oncogenes [read more here ...].

In vitro

It refers to studies in experimental biology that are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological context in order to permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms:

In vitro

In vitro is a Latin word which means "within glass".

In contrast to in vitro, the term in vivo refers to work that is conducted with living organisms in their normal, intact state, while ex vivo refers to studies on functional organs that have been removed from the intact organism.


Try Effective Brain Workouts & Exercises on Your Kindle!

Do you have an Amazon Kindle? Then in a very short free time that you have; e.g., in a break time at work or school, or in a time of leisure, just diligently spend a couple of minutes on Sharpen Your Brain! While you will have fun by doing its from very easy to very difficult brain workouts for improving cognitive skills, every next month you will find yourself smarter than last month. Do not hesitate to spend a couple of minutes of every day of your life for maintaining and improving your brain! Keep your brain sharp and healthy!

Friday, July 29, 2011

The Scarlet Letter

An 1850 romantic work of fiction in a historical setting, written by Nathaniel Hawthorne; it is considered to be his magnum opus, it tells the story of Hester Prynne, who conceives a daughter through an adulterous affair and struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity:

The Scarlet Letter

The full story can be found at (free):

Read about Nathaniel Hawthorne at:

Lake Victoria

Africa’s largest lake by area, it is the largest tropical lake in the world, and the world's second largest freshwater lake by surface area:

Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria is divided among three countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.


Australian eucalypti with fibrous inner bark:



Saturday, July 23, 2011


A solid, waxy, fatty, flammable substance produced in the intestines of the sperm whale and used in perfumes:


[image source]

Ambergris occurs as a biliary secretion of the intestines of the sperm whale and can be found floating upon the sea, or in the sand near the coast. It is also sometimes found in the abdomens of whales. Because the beaks of giant squids have been found embedded within lumps of ambergris, scientists have theorised that the substance is produced by the whale's gastrointestinal tract to ease the passage of hard, sharp objects that the whale might have eaten.
Ambergris is usually passed in the fecal matter. Ambergris that forms a mass too large to be passed through the intestines is expelled via the mouth, leading to the reputation of ambergris as primarily coming from whale vomit.
Ambergris can be found in the Atlantic Ocean and on the coasts of Brazil, Madagascar, the East Indies, The Maldives, China, Japan, India, Australia, New Zealand, and the Molucca islands. Most commercially collected ambergris comes from The Bahamas in the Caribbean, particularly New Providence [read more ...].



An irrational fear of the color red, often accompanied by hematophobia (fear of blood):


Note: Erythrophobia also means fear of blushing.



An abnormal and persistent fear of blood:

Hematophobia (or Hemophobia)

Sufferers of this very common phobia dread the sight of their own blood, the sight of the blood of another person or an animal, and sometimes printed or filmed images of blood or even thoughts of blood. Blood may remind them of their own vulnerability to injury and of the eventuality of death.

Some sufferers of hematophobia experience a typical phobic reaction characterized by an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Other sufferers experience an atypical phobic reaction characterized by a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, causing paleness and weakness. They may even faint. Those with the latter reaction may develop a new fear: the fear of fainting.

Through the ages, writers have done little to calm the fear of blood. In Homer's Iliad, waterways run red with blood as a wrathful Achilles harvests his crop of Trojans. In Shakespeare's Macbeth, blood becomes a terrifying symbol of guilt to Lady Macbeth, and she washes her hands raw to rid them of blood, real or imagined. In Bram Stoker's Dracula blood becomes the nurture of a vampire.

"Hematophobia" is derived from the Greek "haima" (blood) and "phobos" (fear). Other English words derived from "haima" include "hemodialysis" (a procedure that removes impurities from the blood), "hemoglobin" (a blood component that transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body) and "hemorrhage" (rapid blood loss).

[source: MedicineNet, Inc.,]



An abnormal aversion to colors or to certain colors:




The oldest religion in the world:


Hinduism is the religion of the majority of people in India and Nepal. It also exists among significant populations outside of the sub continent and has over 900 million adherents worldwide.
In some ways Hinduism is the oldest living religion in the world, or at least elements within it stretch back many thousands of years. Yet Hinduism resists easy definition partly because of the vast array of practices and beliefs found within it. It is also closely associated conceptually and historically with the other Indian religions Jainism,Buddhism and Sikhism.
Unlike most other religions, Hinduism has no single founder, no single scripture, and no commonly agreed set of teachings. Throughout its extensive history, there have been many key figures teaching different philosophies and writing numerous holy books. For these reasons, writers often refer to Hinduism as 'a way of life' or 'a family of religions' rather than a single religion.
Defining Hinduism
The term 'Hindu' was derived from the river or river complex of the northwest, the Sindhu. Sindhu is a Sanskrit word used by the inhabitants of the region, the Aryans in the second millennium BCE. Later migrants and invaders, the Persians in the sixth century BCE, the Greeks from the 4th century BCE, and the Muslims from the 8th century CE, used the name of this river in their own languages for the land and its people.
The term 'Hindu' itself probably does not go back before the 15th and 16th centuries when it was used by people to differentiate themselves from followers of other traditions, especially the Muslims (Yavannas), in Kashmir and Bengal. At that time the term may have simply indicated groups united by certain cultural practices such as cremation of the dead and styles of cuisine. The 'ism' was added to 'Hindu' only in the 19th century in the context of British colonialismand missionary activity.
The origins of the term 'hindu' are thus cultural, political and geographical. Now the term is widely accepted although any definition is subject to much debate. In some ways it is true to say that Hinduism is a religion of recent origin yet its roots and formation go back thousands of years.
Some claim that one is 'born a Hindu', but there are now many Hindus of non-Indian descent. Others claim that its core feature is belief in animpersonal Supreme, but important strands have long described and worshipped a personal God. Outsiders often criticise Hindus as being polytheistic, but many adherents claim to be monotheists.
Some Hindus define orthodoxy as compliance with the teachings of the Vedic texts (the four Vedas and their supplements). However, still others identify their tradition with 'Sanatana Dharma', the eternal order of conduct that transcends any specific body of sacred literature. Scholars sometimes draw attention to the caste system as a defining feature, but many Hindus view such practices as merely a social phenomenon or an aberration of their original teachings. Nor can we define Hinduism according to belief in concepts such as karma and samsara (reincarnation) because Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists (in a qualified form) accept this teaching too.
Although it is not easy to define Hinduism, we can say that it is rooted in India, most Hindus revere a body of texts as sacred scripture known as the Veda, and most Hindus draw on a common system of values known as dharma.
·         Hinduism originated around the Indus Valley near the River Indus in modern day Pakistan.
·         About 80% of the Indian population regard themselves as Hindu.
·         Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God, whose qualities and forms are represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him.
·         Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, governed byKarma.
·         Hindus believe that the soul passes through a cycle of successive lives and its next incarnation is always dependent on how the previous life was lived.
·         The main Hindu texts are the Vedas and their supplements (books based on the Vedas). Veda is a Sanskrit word meaning 'knowledge'. These scriptures do not mention the word 'Hindu' but many scriptures discuss dharma, which can be rendered as 'code of conduct', 'law', or 'duty'
·         Hindus celebrate many holy days, but the Festival of Lights, Diwali is the best known.
·         The 2001 census recorded 559,000 Hindus in Britain, around 1% of the population.


Sunday, July 17, 2011


A Japanese monitor maker corporation which produced the DuraVision FDF2301-3D that is a Glasses-Free 3D Monitor:

Eizo (Eizo Nanao Corporation)




An American advanced technology company founded in 1990 which designs robots such as an autonomous home vacuum cleaner, the Scooba that scrubs and cleans hard floors, and military and police robots:

iRobot Corporation


PackBot: PackBot is a series of military robots by iRobot. More than 2000 PackBots are currently on station in Iraq and Afghanistan, with hundreds more on the way [read more:].

Scooba: Scooba is an automated robotic floor washer produced by iRobot [ read more:].

Roomba: Roomba is an autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner sold by iRobot. Under normal operating conditions, it is able to navigate a living space and its obstacles while vacuuming the floor [read more:].



Try Effective Brain Workouts & Exercises on Your Kindle!

Do you have an Amazon Kindle? Then in a very short free time that you have; e.g., in a break time at work or school, or in a time of leisure, just diligently spend a couple of minutes on Sharpen Your Brain! While you will have fun by doing its from very easy to very difficult brain workouts for improving cognitive skills, every next month you will find yourself smarter than last month. Do not hesitate to spend a couple of minutes of every day of your life for maintaining and improving your brain! Keep your brain sharp and healthy!

Friday, July 8, 2011

Howard Gardner

In 1983, the theory of multiple intelligences, as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific modalities, was proposed by:

Howard Gardner

The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability.
Gardner argues that there are a wide variety of cognitive abilities which are only very weakly correlated with one another, despite the close correlations between aspects of intelligence generally measured by traditional intelligence (IQ) tests or psychometrics. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication 1) may best learn to multiply through a different approach, 2) may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or 3) may even be looking at and understand the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level. Such a fundamentally deeper understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process of multiplication.
The theory has been met with mixed responses. Empirical evidence reveals high correlations between different tasks (rather than the low correlations which Gardner's theory predicts). Nevertheless many educationalists support the practical value of the approaches suggested by the theory.

The theory's eight currently accepted intelligences are:
  1. Spatial
  2. Linguistic
  3. Logical-mathematical
  4. Bodily-kinesthetic
  5. Musical
  6. Interpersonal
  7. Intrapersonal
  8. Naturalistic

Read more here ...



Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, denoted by 1H, 2H, and 3H; where the most common hydrogen isotope with an abundance of more than 99.98% is:

Protium (or Hydrogen-1)

Naturally Occurring Isotopes of Hydrogen:

1) Protium or Hydrogen-1 (denoted by 1H)
   The nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single proton.

2) Deuterium (or Hydrogen-2)
   It contains one proton and one neutron in its nucleus.

3) Tritium (or Hydrogen-3)
   It contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus.



Variants of atoms of a particular chemical element, which have differing numbers of neutrons:




The most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass:



Friday, July 1, 2011

Papua New Guinea

A country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands:

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea
The flag of Papua New Guinea is divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered; red, black, and yellow are traditional colors of Papua New Guinea; the bird of paradise - endemic to the island of New Guinea - is an emblem of regional tribal culture and represents the emergence of Papua New Guinea as a nation; the Southern Cross, visible in the night sky, symbolizes Papua New Guinea's connection with Australia and several other countries in the South Pacific.


Official Name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

Background: The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.

More Information:


Land area: 462,840 sq. km.; about the size of California.
Cities: Capital--Port Moresby (254,158). Other cities--Lae (78,038), Mt. Hagen (27,789).
Terrain: Mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills. The largest portion of the population lives in fertile highlands valleys that were unknown to the outside world until the 1930s, but that supported agriculture some 10,000 years ago, possibly before agriculture was developed elsewhere.
Climate: Tropical. NW monsoon, Dec.-Mar.; SE monsoon, May-Oct.


Population (2008 est.): 6.5 million.
Annual population growth rate (2005-2010): 2.0%.
Languages: Three official languages are English, Tok Pisin, and Motu. There are approximately 860 other languages.
Education: Years compulsory--0. Literacy--49.3%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008)--69/1,000. Life expectancy (2008)--62.0 yrs.


Type: Constitutional parliamentary democracy.
Constitution: September 16, 1975.
Branches: Executive--Queen Elizabeth II (head of state, represented by a governor general); prime minister (head of government). Legislative--unicameral parliament. Judicial--independent; highest is Supreme Court.
Administrative subdivisions: 19 provinces and the national capital district (Port Moresby).
Major political parties: National Alliance (NA), People's Progress Party (PPP), United Resources Party (URP), PNG Party (PNGP).
Suffrage: Universal over 18 years of age.


Nominal GDP (2008): U.S. $6.39 billion; PGK 18.72 billion.
Average exchange rate (2008): U.S. $1 = PGK 2.7.
Real GDP growth rate (2008): 4.5%.
Inflation rate (2009): 7.0%.
Per capita GDP (2008): U.S. $1,040.
Natural resources: Gold, copper ore, crude oil, natural gas, timber, fish, oil palm, tea, rubber, logs.
Forestry (4% of GDP); marine (1% of GDP); minerals and oil (82% of GDP).
Agriculture (13% of GDP): Major products--coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm oil, timber, tea, vanilla.
Industry (25% of GDP): Major sectors--copra crushing; palm oil processing; plywood production; wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; construction; tourism; crude oil production, refined petroleum production.
Trade: Exports--66% of GDP: gold, copper ore, oil, timber, palm oil, coffee. Major markets (in order by value--high to low)--Australia, Japan, Philippines, Germany, South Korea, China, United States, United Kingdom, Singapore, and Malaysia. Imports--31% of GDP: machinery and transport equipment, vehicles, manufactured goods, food, mineral fuels, chemicals. Major suppliers (in order by value--high to low)--Australia, United States, Singapore, Japan, China, New Zealand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, and United Kingdom.


The indigenous population of Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Papua New Guinea has several thousand separate communities, most with only a few hundred people. Divided by language, customs, and tradition, some of these communities have engaged in low-scale tribal conflict with their neighbors for millennia. The advent of modern weapons and modern migration into urban areas has greatly magnified the impact of this lawlessness.

The isolation created by the mountainous terrain is so great that some groups, until recently, were unaware of the existence of neighboring groups only a few kilometers away. The diversity, reflected in a folk saying, "For each village, a different culture," is perhaps best shown in the local languages. Spoken mainly on the island of New Guinea--composed of Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of West Papua--some 800 of these languages have been identified; of these, only 350-450 are related. The remainder seem to be totally unrelated either to each other or to the other major groupings. Most native languages are spoken by a few hundred to a few thousand, although Enga, used in part of the highlands, is spoken by some 130,000 people. However, the Enga people are subdivided into clans that regularly conflict with each other. Many native languages are extremely complex grammatically.

Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca. English is spoken by educated people and in Milne Bay Province. The overall population density is low, although pockets of overpopulation exist. Papua New Guinea's Western Province averages one person per square kilometer (3 per sq. mi.). The Chimbu Province in the New Guinea highlands averages 20 persons per square kilometer (60 per sq. mi.) and has areas containing up to 200 people farming a square kilometer of land. The highlands are home to 40% of the population.

A considerable urban drift toward Port Moresby and other major centers has occurred in recent years. The trend toward urbanization accelerated in the 1990s, bringing in its wake squatter settlements, ethnic disputes, unemployment, public utilities pressure, and attendant social problems, especially violent crime.

Approximately 96% of the population is Christian. The churches with the largest number of members are the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church, the United Church, and the Seventh Day Adventist church. Although the major churches are under indigenous leadership, a large number of missionaries remain in the country. The bulk of the estimated 2,000 Americans resident in Papua New Guinea are missionaries and their families. The non-Christian portion of the indigenous population, as well as a portion of the nominal Christians, practices a wide variety of religions that are an integral part of traditional culture, mainly animism (spirit worship) and ancestor cults.

Foreign residents comprise about 1% of the population. More than half are Australian; others are from China, the United

Kingdom, New Zealand, the Philippines, India, and the United States, most of whom are missionaries. Since independence, about 900 foreigners have become naturalized citizens.

Though cultures vary widely, traditional Papua New Guinea social structures generally include the following characteristics:

  • The practice of subsistence economy;
  • Recognition of bonds of kinship with obligations extending beyond the immediate family group;
  • Generally egalitarian relationships with an emphasis on acquired, rather than inherited, status; and
  • A strong attachment of the people to land, which is held communally. Traditional communities do not recognize a permanent transfer of ownership when land is sold.
  • Though land and other possessions may be inherited through the female line in some cultures, women generally are considered and treated as inferiors. Gender violence is endemic.
  • Patterns and frequency of sexual activity, though never publicly discussed (especially in rural areas), contribute to the current rapid spread of HIV.

Most Papua New Guineans still adhere strongly to this traditional social structure, which has its roots in village life.


Archeological evidence indicates that humans arrived on New Guinea at least 60,000 years ago, probably by sea from Southeast Asia during an Ice Age period when the sea was lower and distances between islands shorter. Although the first arrivals were hunters and gatherers, early evidence shows that people managed the forest environment to provide food. There also are indications of gardening having been practiced at the same time that agriculture was developing in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Early garden crops--many of which are indigenous--included sugarcane, Pacific bananas, yams, and taros, while sago and pandanus were two commonly exploited native forest crops. Today's staples--sweet potatoes and pigs--were later arrivals, but shellfish and fish have long been mainstays of coastal dwellers' diets.

When Europeans first arrived, inhabitants of New Guinea and nearby islands--while still relying on bone, wood, and stone tools--had a productive agricultural system. They traded along the coast, where products mainly were pottery, shell ornaments, and foodstuffs, and in the interior, where forest products were exchanged for shells and other sea products.

The first Europeans to sight New Guinea were probably the Portuguese and Spanish navigators sailing in the South Pacific in the early part of the 16th century. In 1526-27, Don Jorge de Meneses accidentally came upon the principal island and is credited with naming it "Papua," a Malay word for the frizzled quality of Melanesian hair. The term "New Guinea" was applied to the island in 1545 by a Spaniard, Inigo Ortiz de Retes, because of a fancied resemblance between the islands' inhabitants and those found on the African Guinea coast. Although European navigators visited the islands and explored their coastlines for the next 170 years, little was known of the inhabitants until the late 19th century.

New Guinea

With Europe's growing need for coconut oil, Godeffroy's of Hamburg, the largest trading firm in the Pacific, began trading for copra in the New Guinea Islands. In 1884, Germany formally took possession of the northeast quarter of the island and put its administration in the hands of a chartered company. In 1899, the German imperial government assumed direct control of the territory, thereafter known as German New Guinea. In 1914, Australian troops occupied German New Guinea, and it remained under Australian military control until 1921. The British Government, on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, assumed a mandate from the League of Nations for governing the Territory of New Guinea in 1920. That mandate was administered by the Australian Government until the Japanese invasion in December 1941 brought about its suspension. Following the surrender of the Japanese in 1945, civil administration of Papua as well as New Guinea was restored, and under the Papua New Guinea Provisional Administration Act, 1945-46, Papua and New Guinea were combined in an administrative union.


On November 6, 1884, a British protectorate was proclaimed over the southern coast of New Guinea (the area called Papua) and its adjacent islands. The protectorate, called British New Guinea, was annexed outright on September 4, 1888. The possession was placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1902. Following the passage of the Papua Act of 1905, British New Guinea became the Territory of Papua, and formal Australian administration began in 1906. Papua was administered under the Papua Act until the Japanese invaded the northern parts of the islands in 1941 and began to advance on Port Moresby and civil administration was suspended. During the war, Papua was governed by a military administration from Port Moresby, where Gen. Douglas MacArthur occasionally made his headquarters. As noted, it was later joined in an administrative union with New Guinea during 1945-46 following the surrender of Japan.

Postwar Developments

The Papua and New Guinea Act of 1949 formally approved the placing of New Guinea under the international trusteeship system and confirmed the administrative union of New Guinea and Papua under the title of "The Territory of Papua and New Guinea." The act provided for a Legislative Council (established in 1951), a judicial organization, a public service, and a system of local government. A House of Assembly replaced the Legislative Council in 1963, and the first House of Assembly opened on June 8, 1964. In 1972, the name of the territory was changed to Papua New Guinea.

Elections in 1972 resulted in the formation of a ministry headed by Chief Minister Michael Somare, who pledged to lead the country to self-government and then to independence. Papua New Guinea became self-governing in December 1973 and achieved independence on September 16, 1975. The 1977 national elections confirmed Michael Somare as Prime Minister at the head of a coalition led by the Pangu Party. However, his government lost a vote of no confidence in 1980 and was replaced by a new cabinet headed by Julius Chan as Prime Minister. The 1982 elections increased Pangu's plurality, and parliament again chose Somare as Prime Minister. In November 1985, the Somare government lost a vote of no confidence, and the parliamentary majority elected Paias Wingti, at the head of a five-party coalition, as Prime Minister. A coalition, headed by Wingti, was victorious in very close elections in July 1987. In July 1988 a no-confidence vote toppled Wingti and brought to power Rabbie Namaliu, who a few weeks earlier had replaced Somare as leader of the Pangu Party. In 1992 Paias Wingti was elected Prime Minister. Julius Chan took his place in 1994 after a vote of no confidence. The 1997 elections brought Bill Skate to power as Prime Minister, but he was replaced by Mekere Morauta after a vote of no confidence in 1999. Michael Somare returned as Prime Minister after the 2002 general elections. He led his national alliance party into the 2007 elections and remained as the Prime Minister, becoming the longest-serving parliamentarian in the Commonwealth. Somare celebrated his 40th year in politics on March 16, 2008.

Such reversals of fortune and a revolving-door succession of prime ministers have characterized Papua New Guinea's national politics. From 1988 to 2002, the country had numerous prime ministers. A plethora of political parties, coalition governments, shifting party loyalties, and motions of no confidence in the leadership all lent an air of instability to political proceedings. For the first 27 years of independence, a "first past the post" electoral system resulted in many parliamentarians elected with less than 15% of their constituency. Fractious politics and a 75% loss rate for incumbents precluded the development of strong political parties or a stable national leadership. The limited preferential voting, introduced in 2003, and an organic law on political parties has strengthened political stability.

In the 2007 elections, 66 members of parliament lost their seats. The government was formed by a coalition of several parties, and Michael Somare, the leader of the National Alliance (and the nation's first Prime Minister in 1975), was elected Prime Minister. His government was the first to complete a 5-year term since independence and hopes to complete a 10-year term. The next national elections will be held in 2012.


Papua New Guinea, a constitutional parliamentary democracy, recognizes Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. She is represented by a governor general who is elected by parliament and who performs mainly ceremonial functions. Papua New Guinea has three levels of government--national, provincial, and local. There is a 109-member unicameral parliament, whose members are elected every 5 years. The parliament in turn elects the prime minister, who appoints his cabinet from members of his party or coalition.

Members of parliament are elected from 19 provinces and the national capital district of Port Moresby. Parliament introduced reforms in June 1995 to change the provincial government system, with regional (at-large) members of parliament becoming provincial governors, while retaining their national seats in parliament.

Papua New Guinea's judiciary is independent of the government. It protects constitutional rights and interprets the laws. There are several levels, culminating in the Supreme Court.

Papua New Guinea's politics are highly competitive with most members elected on a personal and ethnic basis within their constituencies rather than as a result of party affiliation. Members of parliament are now elected in a limited preferential voting (LPV) system. There are several parties, but party allegiances are not strong. Winning independent candidates are usually courted in efforts to forge the majority needed to form a government, and allegiances are fluid. No single party has yet won enough seats to form a government in its own right.

Papua New Guinea has a history of changes in government coalitions and leadership from within parliament during the 5-year intervals between national elections. New governments are protected by law from votes of no confidence for the first 18 months of their incumbency, and no votes of no confidence may be moved in the 12 months preceding a national election. In an effort to create greater stability by reducing incessant votes of no confidence, the Organic Law on the Integrity of Political Parties and Candidates (OLIPPAC) was passed in 2001, forbidding members of each party in parliament from shifting loyalty to another party. In July 2010, the Supreme Court ruled certain provisions of the OLIPPAC unconstitutional, and as a result members of parliament were again free to move between political parties. Soon after the Supreme Court ruling, three government ministers, including Deputy Prime Minister Puka Temu, resigned from the government and joined the opposition in a bid to move a vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Michael Somare. The bid was unsuccessful because the Speaker of Parliament did not allow a vote to be taken on the motion before adjourning parliament until November.

In 2003, the electoral system was changed to limited preferential voting, which has begun to encourage politicians to strike alliances and to be responsive to constituent concerns once elected. The new system was used in the 2007 national general elections. However, 53 election petitions disputing returns were registered with the courts. Allegations included bribery, intimidation, block voting, and undue influence.

On Bougainville Island, a 10-year rebellion was halted by a truce in 1997 and a permanent cease-fire was signed in April 1998. A peace agreement between the Government and ex-combatants was signed in August 2001. Under the eyes of a regional peace-monitoring force and a UN observer mission, the government and provincial leaders established an interim administration and made significant progress toward complete surrender/destruction of weapons. A constitution was drafted in 2004 and provincial government elections were held in May 2005. The elections were deemed to be free and fair by international observers, and Joseph Kabui was elected to serve as the first president of the Autonomous Bougainville Government (ABG). Bougainvilleans also participated in Papua New Guinea national elections in 2007 to elect representatives to the national parliament. Kabui died of a heart attack in June 2008. James Tanis was elected President of the ABG in December 2008. Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in May 2010, and John Momis was elected President. A referendum was tentatively agreed to be held between 2015 and 2020, 10 to 15 years following formation of the ABG. Progress has been slow with the ABG initially focusing on disarmament, peace, and reconciliation. A small percentage of former fighters have created illegal "no go zones," particularly in the Central and South Bougainville.

Principal Government Officials

Governor General--Paulias Matane
Prime Minister--Michael Somare
Deputy Prime Minister--Don Polye
Foreign Minister--Samuel Abal
Ambassador to the United States--Evan Paki
Ambassador to the United Nations--Robert Aisi

Papua New Guinea maintains an embassy at 1779 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202-745-3680; fax 202-745-3679). The Papua New Guinea mission to the United Nations is at 801 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10017 (tel. 212-682-6447).


Papua New Guinea is rich in natural resources, including minerals, oil, gas, timber, and fish, and produces a variety of commercial agricultural products. The economy generally can be separated into subsistence and market sectors, although the distinction is blurred by smallholder cash cropping of coffee, cocoa, and copra. Approximately 75% of the country's population relies primarily on the subsistence economy. The minerals, timber, and fish sectors are dominated by foreign investors.

Manufacturing continued to be slow in 2007. The service industry was stable, while tourism shows potential and remains largely untapped. Generally, economic activity continued to grow in 2007. The growth was boosted by favorable international commodity prices. Employment grew modestly. The financial sector enjoyed high liquidity, with increased lending due to low interest rates. Inflation remained low.

Mineral and Oil Resources

Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with gold, copper, oil, natural gas, and other minerals. In 2006 minerals and oil export receipts accounted for 82% of GDP. Government revenues and foreign exchange earnings depend heavily on mineral and oil exports. Indigenous landowners in areas affected by minerals projects also receive royalties from those operations. Copper and gold mines are currently in production at Porgera, Ok Tedi, Misima, and Lihir. A consortium led by Exxon/Mobil signed a final investment decision in December 2009 to begin the commercialization of the country's estimated 22.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves through the construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facility. Interoil, an American-owned firm, opened Papua New Guinea's first oil refinery in 2004 and is also building a second liquefied natural gas production facility which it aims to complete by 2012 with production capacity of 32,500 barrels of product per day.

Agriculture, Timber, and Fish

Papua New Guinea also produces and exports valuable agricultural, timber, and marine products. Agriculture currently accounts for 13% of GDP and supports more than 75% of the population. Cash crops ranked by value are coffee, oil, cocoa, copra, tea, rubber, and sugar. About 40% of the country is covered with exploitable trees, but a domestic woodworking industry has been slow to develop. A number of Southeast Asian companies are active in the timber industry, but World Bank and other donors have withdrawn support from the sector over concern for unregulated deforestation and environmental damage. Recently enacted forestry legislation has exacerbated those concerns. Papua New Guinea has an active tuna industry, but much of the catch is made by boats of other nations fishing in Papua New Guinea waters under license. Papua New Guinea is a signatory to the South Pacific Tuna Treaty (SPTT), under which U.S. purse seiners fish for tuna in the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the Pacific Island parties. Locally produced fish exports are confined primarily to shrimp.


In general, the Papua New Guinea economy is highly dependent on imports for manufactured goods. Its industrial sector--exclusive of mining--accounts for only 9% of GDP and contributes little to exports. Small-scale industries produce beer, soap, concrete products, clothing, paper products, matches, ice cream, canned meat, fruit juices, furniture, plywood, and paint. The small domestic market, relatively high wages, and high transport costs are constraints to industrial development.

Trade and Investment

Australia, Singapore, and Japan are the principal exporters to Papua New Guinea. Petroleum and mining machinery and aircraft have been the strongest U.S. exports to Papua New Guinea.

Australia is Papua New Guinea's most important export market, followed by Japan and the European Union. The U.S. imports modest amounts of gold, copper ore, cocoa, coffee, and other agricultural products from Papua New Guinea. Most of those exports take place through third countries.

With the 2003 withdrawal of Chevron/Texaco, Australian companies are the most active in developing Papua New Guinea's mining and petroleum sectors. Exxon/Mobil retains a major share of natural gas reserves and is constructing a liquefied natural gas processing facility. Interoil, backed by an Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) loan, operates an oil refinery in Port Moresby and in September 2010 signed an agreement with Energy World Corporation (EWC) to complete front-end engineering and design and a final investment decision to establish the second LNG project in the country. China is increasing its investment in Papua New Guinea, including development of the $1 billion Ramu nickel mine.

Papua New Guinea became a participating economy in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum in 1993. It joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1996. It is an observer at ASEAN and a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum. It has preferential tariff agreements with the markets of Melanesian and Pacific Island neighbors through the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) Trade Agreement and the Pacific Islands Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA).

Development Programs and Aid

Australia is by far the largest bilateral aid donor to Papua New Guinea, offering about $355 million a year in assistance. Budgetary support, which has been provided in decreasing amounts since independence, was phased out in 2000, with aid concentrated on project development. In 2004, Australia and Papua New Guinea embarked on the Enhanced Cooperation Program (ECP), under which Australia agreed to provide direct assistance, including 210 line police officers, to the Papua New Guinea constabulary. The ECP met with initial success, but was abruptly ended when Papua New Guinea's Supreme Court stripped Australian police officers of immunity in May 2005. Virtually all ECP personnel left Papua New Guinea following the court's decision. The governments of Papua New Guinea and Australia are now involved in protracted negotiations on a scaled-down version of the ECP.

Other major sources of aid to Papua New Guinea are Japan, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. Volunteers from a number of countries and mission church workers also provide education, health, and development assistance throughout the country. Foreign assistance to Papua New Guinea is approximately $46 per capita. The U.S. funds a $1.5 million-per-year HIV/AIDS project in Papua New Guinea.

Current Economic Conditions

After years of decline and government deficit, Papua New Guinea was bolstered in recent years by a general rise in commodity prices and by government steps toward spending control. The economy continues to grow modestly and the government recorded a modest surplus in 2007. However, the economic improvements are based almost entirely on high commodity prices and the nation continues to have serious problems of corruption, a lack of law and order, land tenure concerns stifling investment, political interference in business, and a lack of political will to adopt needed sweeping reforms.


Papua New Guinea's foreign policy reflects close ties with Australia and other traditional allies. Papua New Guinea is by far the largest Pacific Island nation and has traditionally viewed itself as part of the Pacific. However, in recent years it has also been cultivating relations with Asian nations. Its views on international political and economic issues are generally moderate. Papua New Guinea has diplomatic relations with 56 countries.


The United States and Papua New Guinea established diplomatic relations upon the latter's independence on September 16, 1975. The two nations belong to a variety of regional organizations, including the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum; the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF); the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC); and the South Pacific Regional Environmental Program (SPREP).

One of the most successful cooperative multilateral efforts linking the U.S. and Papua New Guinea is the U.S.-Pacific Islands Multilateral Tuna Fisheries Treaty, under which the U.S. grants $18 million per year to Pacific Island parties and the latter provide access for U.S. fishing vessels. The United States has provided significant humanitarian assistance to Papua New Guinea and contributed to the rehabilitation of Bougainville. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds a $1.5 million-per-year HIV/AIDS project in Papua New Guinea and contributed $150,000 to Oro disaster relief efforts. The Pacific Partnership 2008 mission provided humanitarian assistance in Port Moresby and Oro Province. School and health clinic engineering projects were completed and over 25,000 people received medical care. The Pacific Partnership 2010 mission provided humanitarian assistance in Rabaul, East New Britain Province. Health and engineering programs were completed in conjunction with local non-governmental organizations. An ongoing International Military Education and Training (IMET) program and HIV/AIDS training program exists.

The U.S. also supports Papua New Guinea's efforts to protect biodiversity. The U.S. Government supports the International Coral Reef Initiative aimed at protecting reefs in tropical nations such as Papua New Guinea. USAID contributes to the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) focused on preserving coral reefs, fisheries, and food security. Papua New Guinea is one of six CTI countries. U.S. military forces, through Pacific Command (PACOM) in Honolulu, Hawaii, provide training to the Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF) and have held small-scale joint training exercises. The U.S. provides police and other education and training courses to national security officials. The U.S. also annually sponsors a handful of Papua New Guinea officials and private citizens to meet and confer with their professional counterparts and to experience the U.S. firsthand through the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) and workshops sponsored by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the Asia Pacific Secretariat (APEC).

The U.S. Peace Corps ceased operations in Papua New Guinea in 2001 due to security concerns. About 2,000 U.S. citizens live in Papua New Guinea, with major concentrations at the headquarters of New Tribes Mission and the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL), both located in the Eastern Highlands Province.

Following the severe sea swells in December 2008, the United States provided $150,000 of humanitarian assistance.


1. U.S. Department of State:: Background Note: Papua New Guinea
2. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA):: Papua New Guinea


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